In civil law systems, sources of law include legal systems such as the Civil Code or the Penal Code and customary law; [Note 2] In common law systems, there are also several sources that merge to form „The Law”. Civil law systems often adopt common law ideas[note 3] and vice versa. Scotland, for example, has a hybrid legal form, as does South Africa, whose law is an amalgam of common law, civil law and tribal law. In England, the archetypal country of common law, there is a hierarchy of sources, as follows: Those in parliament who supported the laws also saw them as an important step towards modernizing Hindu society, as they would clearly separate secular laws from religious law. Many also announced the possibility that the law would introduce more rights for women, noting that these rights were necessary for India`s development.   sourcesofamericanlaw.lawbooks.cali.org/chapter/administrative-regulations/ As in many global legal systems that rely on precedent as a source of law, some cases stand out that have made the Indian legal system what it is today. They not only form the basis for future court cases, but also give a statement about the state of the country and in which direction it wants to go. Such a case occurred during India`s modernization reforms. Known as the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act (1971), the law allowed Indian women to legally obtain abortions. Thus, this law not only made a religious statement as India sought to become more secular, but also a declaration of equality when it expanded women`s rights. [ref. needed] Compared to other sources of law, precedents have the advantage of flexibility and adaptability and may allow a judge to apply „justice” instead of „the law.” The U.S.
Congress enacts federal laws and those laws apply in all 50 states. An example of federal legislation is the Clean Air Act, a federal law that regulates air emissions from stationary and mobile pollution sources. This law is a federal law and applies as such to all stationary and mobile sources of air pollution in all states of the country. This collection provides legal historians with a unique collection of the „primary sources” of law: laws and codes from Great Britain, France, Germany, Northern and Central Europe in an easy-to-find online form that complements the collection of treatises on foreign, comparative and international law, 1600-1926. This unique collection, digitized for the first time, brings together documents and memoirs from 1891 to 1950 that have most influenced modern writing and thinking about American law and American legal history. In modern society, in many states and in the federal government (United States v. Hudson & Goodwin, 2010), judges cannot create crimes. This goes against notions of fairness. Inventing a new crime and punishing the accused for it adds neither coherence nor predictability to our legal system. It also violates the principle of legality, a central concept of American criminal justice embodied in this sentence: „Nullum crimen sine lege, nulla poena sine crimen” (No crime without law, no punishment without crime). Over the course of two centuries, the legal system of the United States has become a model for other nations of the world that are trying to make various laws. In this presentation, we discussed the four sources of law that interact, overlap, and work together to create a robust set of legal guidelines.
The law comes from three places called sources of law. Each country`s legal system has its own sources of law, but for systems that enact constitutions, constitutions are the most fundamental sources of law.  A constitution is a charter that establishes the government and the rules by which the government must function. With India`s formal independence from Britain on August 15, 1947, India received a new constitution and a complex legal system. Although Western influence in this system is obvious, it is not an exact reproduction. The Indian legal system has common law characteristics, but it is codified and therefore closer to civil law. The modern Hindu legal system is applied to strictly personal law, including matters of marriage, inheritance and adoption, while India`s secular legal system is applied to criminal and civil law matters. Modern Hindu law refers to one of India`s personal legal systems with similar systems for Muslims, Sikhs, Parsis and Christians.
This Hindu personal law, or modern Hindu law, is an extension of Anglo-Hindu law developed in India during the British colonial period, which in turn is linked to the less well-defined tradition of classical Hindu law. The period of this period of Hindu law begins with India`s formal independence from Britain on August 14, 1947 and extends to the present day. While modern Hindu law is touted for its inherent respect for religious doctrines, many still complain that discrimination (especially with the historical tradition of the caste system) still permeates the legal system, despite efforts to modernize and increase the legal rights of the marginalized (especially with the passage of Hindu code bills and the creation of notable precedents). The English legal system found its way to the United States with the first settlers. Initially, the thirteen colonies unanimously adopted the common law as the law of the land. All crimes were common law crimes, and cases determined criminal elements, defences and regimes of punishment. Gradually, after the Revolutionary War, hostility to England and modern reforms led to the erosion of common law crimes and a codification movement. States have begun to replace common law crimes with laws enacted by state legislators. Oxford professor Sir William Blackstone`s Commentaries on the Law of England, which interpreted and summarized English common law, became an essential reference when the nation began to transform common law principles into written laws, regulations and penal codes (Duhaime, L., 2010).  University of Idaho School of Law, „Sources of Law,” www.uidaho.edu/~/media/UIdaho-Responsive/Files/law/library/legal-research/guides/sources-law.ashx.
Nehru completed codification and partial reform, but overall the legal system changed only slightly. Ultimately, a number of four major personal laws were passed in 1955-56, and these laws constitute the first point of reference for modern Hindu law: the Hindu Marriage Act (1955), the Hindu Succession Act (1956), the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act (1956), and the Hindu Adoptions and Maintenance Act (1956). Although these legislative measures purported to resolve still unclear parts of Anglo-Hindu law, the jurisprudence and tradition of interpretation of British judges and Indian judges in British service have remained and remain decisive for the application of modern Hindu law. In this presentation, we will examine the four main sources of law at the state and federal levels. These four sources of law are the U.S. Constitution, federal and state laws, bylaws, and case law.  World Bank Group, „Sources of Law,” ppp.worldbank.org/public-private-partnership/legislation-regulation/framework-assessment/legal-systems/sources-of-law. The cases are diverse, and the case law does not really have the force of law until the judge has ruled on the case, so there must be a way to ensure the predictability of the jurisprudence. It would not be fair to punish someone for behavior that is not yet illegal.
Therefore, judges adhere to a policy called stare decisis. Stare decisis is derived from English common law and requires judges to follow judgments in previous cases. A previous case is called a precedent. Once judges have rendered a decision in a particular case, the public can be confident that the resulting precedent will continue to be followed by other judges. Stare decisis is not absolute; Judges may depart from it to adapt the law to the modern expectations of society. Before discussing the modern application and sources of Hindu law, it is important to describe who these laws govern. In the case of Hindu Personnel and Family Laws, as set out in the Acts of Parliament discussed below, those who follow the Hindu religion, as well as those who are not Christian, Jewish or Muslim, will be held responsible for these laws.  Therefore, all Indians who are not Muslims, Jews or Christians are considered Hindus, which does not take into account the personal religious laws of followers of Buddhist, Jain, Sikh and other religions, leading to controversy within these communities. The Indian legal system recognizes Muslim, Jewish and Christian family courts, as well as secular family courts.
Of the three sources of law, constitutional law is considered the highest and should not be superseded by either of the other two sources of law. According to the principles of federal supremacy, the federal or U.S. Constitution is the primary source of law, and state constitutions cannot replace it. The Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Federal Supremacy are discussed in Chapter 2, „The Legal System in the United States,” and Chapter 3, „Protection of the Constitution.” .